Upper Lachlan

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Upper Lachlan

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Upper Lachlan Council Area is not known. About 820 plant species (native and introduced) and 230 animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive. It was not possible to meaningfully compare the diversity of species between the current and previous reporting periods.

Green and Golden Bell Frog: Dave Hunter

Green and Golden Bell Frog

Six plant and 33 vertebrate animal species that occur in the council area are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered. The number of species in the area listed as nationally threatened increased by one during the reporting period, while the number listed as threatened in NSW increased by four; all species were animals. One animal species had its status upgraded from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW. An additional 82 threatened plant and animal species are predicted to occur in the council area.

Native plants and animals in the area are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Formal recovery plans were in place for three of the 39 threatened species known to occur in the council area; two plans were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another seven species and exhibited for one other species. Seventeen species were covered by three national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many of the threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the council area and had been effective in conserving species was not known.

What native species occur in the council area?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Upper Lachlan Council Area. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the council area provide some indication of the area's former native species diversity. Important areas containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Upper Lachlan Council Area

About 820 plant species, most of them native and including many lichens and other lower plant species, have been recorded in the council area. Comparison with plant diversity in the previous reporting period was not possible (see Differences between reporting periods). No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the reporting period.

Six plant species recorded in the council area are listed as vulnerable or endangered in NSW and/or nationally (see Table 1); all were listed prior to the current reporting period. Scientific experts predict that an additional 37 vulnerable or endangered species may also be present (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Aromatic Peppercress Lepidium hyssopifoliumEENoNone
Cambage KunzeaKunzea cambageiVVNoNone
Dense Cord-rushBaloskion longipes (Restio longipes)VVNoNone
Doubletail ButtercupDiuris aequalisVNoNone
Floating Swamp-Wallaby grassAmphibromus fluitansVVNoNone
Yass DaisyAmmobium craspedioidesVVNoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Source: ANH 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Common nameScientific name
Hygrocybe anomala var. ianthinomarginata
Philotheca ericifolia
Solanum armourense
A spear grassAustrostipa wakoolica
Austral ToadflaxThesium australe
Button WrinklewortRutidosis leptorrhynchoides
Cotoneaster PomaderrisPomaderris cotoneaster
Creeping Hop-bushDodonaea procumbens
Crimson Spider OrchidCaladenia concolor
Crimson Spider OrchidCaladenia concolor
Deane's BoroniaBoronia deanei
Delicate PomaderrisPomaderris delicata
Dwarf KerrawangRulingia prostrata
Few-seeded BossiaeaBossiaea oligosperma
Flockton WattleAcacia flocktoniae
Kanangra WattleAcacia clunies-rossiae
Kowmung HakeaHakea dohertyi
Kydra WestringiaWestringia kydrensis
Lemon ZieriaZieria citriodora
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosa
McBarron's GoodeniaGoodenia macbarronii
Michelago Parrot-peaDillwynia glaucula
Monaro Golden DaisyRutidosis leiolepis
Mountain TrachymeneTrachymene saniculifolia
Needle GeebungPersoonia acerosa
Pale PomaderrisPomaderris pallida
Pine Donkey OrchidDiuris tricolor
Robertson's PeppermintEucalyptus robertsonii subsp. hemisphaerica
Rough EyebrightEuphrasia scabra
Silky Swainson-peaSwainsona sericea
Silver-leafed GumEucalyptus pulverulenta
Small Purple-peaSwainsona recta
Small Snake OrchidDiuris pedunculata
Small-leaved GumEucalyptus parvula
Tarengo Leek OrchidPrasophyllum petilum
Thick-leaf Star-hairAstrotricha crassifolia
Trailing MonotocaMonotoca rotundifolia

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animal species in Upper Lachlan Council Area

Two hundred and thirty native vertebrate animal species have been recorded in the council area, about 60% of them birds (see Table 3). Although this is 106 species more than recorded in the previous reporting period, it probably reflects the increase in the size of the new council area (see Differences between reporting periods). The number of invertebrate animals (insects etc) is not known. No specific information was available on the abundance of animal species during the current reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Animal group (Order)Number of species
2004*
Number of species
2000 Report#
Mammals3410
Amphibians143
Birds136102
Reptiles429
Fish4-
Total230124

* Number of species in new Upper Lachlan Council Area; # Number of species in former Crookwell Shire only (see Differences between reporting periods); Source: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005; OCE 2000

Thirty-three animal species recorded in Upper Lachlan Council Area are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 4). They include 10 mammals, 16 birds, three amphibians and four fish. During the reporting period, four species were listed as Vulnerable in NSW and one as nationally Vulnerable. One species—the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata)—had its status upgraded from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW.

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Brush-tailed Rock-wallabyPetrogale penicillataVEChange from Vulnerable and Endangered population in NSW to Endangered in NSW, 04/07/03National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensisVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
Greater Broad-nosed BatScoteanax rueppelliiVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Inland Forest BatVespadelus baverstockiVNoNone
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Large-eared Pied BatChalinolobus dwyeriVVListed as nationally Vulnerable, 04/04/01Action Plan (1999)3
Little Pied BatChalinolobus picatusVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensisVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australisVNoRecovery Plan (gazetted 07/03/03);
Action Plan (1996)2
Birds
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriaeVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Chestnut Quail-thrushCinclosoma castanotusVNoNone
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Gilbert's WhistlerPachycephala inornataVNoNone
Glossy Black-cockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded RobinMelanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Magpie GooseAnseranas semipalmataVNoNone
Major Mitchell's CockatooCacatua leadbeateriVNoNone
MalleefowlLeipoa ocellataVENoNational Recovery Plan (October 2000); Action Plan (2000)1
Masked OwlTyto novaehollandiaeVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Painted HoneyeaterGrantiella pictaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Powerful OwlNinox strenuaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent Parrot (eastern subsp.)Polytelis anthopeplus monarchoidesVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (2000)1
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittatusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Superb ParrotPolytelis swainsoniiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (2000)1
Turquoise ParrotNeophema pulchellaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Booroolong FrogLitoria booroolongensisENoRecovery Plan in preparation
Green and Golden Bell FrogLitoria aureaVENoNational Recovery Plan preparation in (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformisVENoNational Recovery Plan preparation in (as at 28/02/04)
Fish
Macquarie PerchMacquaria australasicaEENoNational Recovery Plan preparation in (as at 28/02/04)
Silver PerchBidyanus bidyanusVListed as Vulnerable under Fisheries Management Act 1994, August 2000Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013 (2003)4
Southern Pygmy PerchNannoperca australisVNoNone
Trout CodMaccullochella macquariensisEENoNational Recovery Plan 1998–2005

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status).
References: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; 3 = Duncan et al. 1999; 4 = MDBMC 2003; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; DPI 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional 45 vulnerable or endangered animal species may occur in the council area (see Table 5), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period. They include the Critically Endangered Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana) and Giant Dragonfly (Petalura gigantea).

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Common nameScientific name
Alpine Tree FrogLitoria verreauxii alpina
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilus
Barking OwlNinox connivens
Black-chinned Honeyeater (eastern subspecies)Melithreptus gularis gularis
Black-tailed GodwitLimosa limosa
Blue Mountains Water SkinkEulamprus leuraensis
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australis
Broad-headed SnakeHoplocephalus bungaroides
BrolgaGrus rubicundus
Brush-tailed PhascogalePhascogale tapoatafa
Brush-tailed Rock-wallabyPetrogale penicillata
Bush Stone-curlewBurhinus grallarius
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensis
Eastern Freetail-batMormopterus norfolkensis
Eastern Long-eared Bat (southeastern form)Nyctophilus timoriensis
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanus
Freckled DuckStictonetta naevosa
Giant Burrowing FrogHeleioporus australiacus
Giant DragonflyPetalura gigantea
Golden Sun MothSynemon plana
Grassland Earless DragonTympanocryptis pinguicolla
Greater Broad-nosed BatScoteanax rueppellii
Grey FalconFalco hypoleucos
Grey-crowned Babbler (eastern subspecies)Pomatostomus temporalis temporalis
Grey-headed Flying-foxPteropus poliocephalus
Large-eared Pied BatChalinolobus dwyeri
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversus
Little Whip SnakeSuta flagellum
Littlejohn's Tree FrogLitoria littlejohni
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivacea
Pied HoneyeaterCerthionyx variegatus
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogaster
Pink-tailed Worm-lizardAprasia parapulchella
Red-crowned ToadletPseudophryne australis
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergi
Sooty OwlTyto tenebricosa
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatus
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isura
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensis
Striped Legless LizardDelma impar
Stuttering Barrred FrogMixophyes balbus
Swift ParrotLathamus discolor
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australis
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventris
Yellow-spotted Bell FrogLitoria castanea

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader South Eastern Highlands and South Western Slopes bioregions within which Upper Lachlan Council Area is located, some bird species not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the council area is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the South Eastern Highlands and South Western Slopes bioregions and known to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area*
Common NameScientific NameDecliningIncreasing
Australian Raven Corvus coronoides+
Black SwanCygnus atratus+
Brown Falcon Falco berigora+
Buff-rumped ThornbillAcanthiza reguloides+
Crested Shrike-titFalcunculus frontatus+
Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans+
Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa+
Eastern Yellow RobinEopsaltria australis+
Golden WhistlerPachycephala pectoralis+
Grey FantailRhipidura albiscapa+
HardheadAythya australis+
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles+
MistletoebirdDicaeum hirundinaceum+
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides+
Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus+
Pied Currawong Strepera graculina+
Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata+
Restless Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta+
Richard's Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae+
Sacred Kingfisher Todiramphus sanctus+
SilvereyeZosterops lateralis+
Striated Pardalote Pardalotus striatus+
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita+
Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus+
Varied SittellaDaphoenositta chrysoptera+
White-browed WoodswallowArtamus superciliosus+
White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae+
White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus+
White-plumed Honeyeater Lichenostomus penicillatus+
White-throated TreecreeperCormobates leucophaeus+

* For a complete list of declining and increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al. 2003 pages 757–788; Source: Barrett et al. 2003; Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the council area; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the council area would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known or poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) or migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Upper Lachlan Council Area. They include:

The main known threats to some of the endangered/vulnerable plant species in the council area are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other listed plant species in the area, and others predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable plants in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Species Threats
Cambage Kunzea
  • road maintenance (e.g. road widening, weed spraying)
Dense Cord-rush
  • pigs rooting for food
Doubletail Buttercup
  • habitat loss and damage from rural-residential subdivision and associated land uses (e.g. horse and goat grazing), modification of tree layer, illegal rubbish dumping, roadworks
Floating Swamp Wallaby-grass
  • drainage of swamps and use for agricultural purposes
  • road maintenance and upgrades
  • use of herbicides

Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Upper Lachlan Council Area. They include:

Eight key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the council area. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Specific threats identified for many of the endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in the council area are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information on known threats for individual threatened animal species in the area, and for other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Upper Lachlan Council Area
Species Threats
Mammals*
Eastern False Pipistrelle; Inland Forest Bat; Koala; Little Pied Bat
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation through native vegetation clearance, loss of hollow bearing and mature roost trees
  • removal of old buildings
Birds*
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies); Diamond Firetail; Gilbert's Whistler; Glossy Black-cockatoo; Hooded Robin (southern form); Malleefowl; Masked Owl; Painted Honeyeater; Powerful Owls; Regent Parrot; Speckled Warbler; Superb Parrot; Turquoise Parrot
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation through native vegetation clearance, residential development, tree loss through altered water tables, overgrazing by stock and rabbits, loss in availability of nest trees
  • fox and cat predation
  • reduction in suitably-sized prey
  • poisoning, disturbance and predation by foxes on fledglings
  • competition with Starlings for nest sites
  • road mortality
Amphibians*
Booroolong Frog; Green and Golden Bell Frog; Southern Bell Frog

  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation through destruction of wetlands, modification of steam channels, loss of cobble banks, loss of native streamside vegetation, stock damage to stream margins, weed invasion of streamside habitats (particularly by willows), use of herbicides and other weed-control measures, pollution, salinisation of waterbodies, sedimentation
  • disease—chytrid fungus
  • alteration of drainage patterns and stormwater runoff
  • alteration to natural flooding regimes from irrigation and river regulation
  • road mortality, where populations are already small due to other threats
  • predation by feral animals such as foxes
  • predation on eggs and tadpoles from exotic fish species such as carp, goldfish and mosquito fish

* Each threat listed does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

What is being done to conserve native species?

Laws and policy

National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the council area. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

Upper Lachlan Council Area is located within the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee and Hawkesbury Nepean Catchment Management Authority (CMA) areas. Each CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The Lachlan Catchment Blueprint (Lachlan Catchment Management Board 2003) and Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint (Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board 2003), both completed during the reporting period, include a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values.

Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans (LEPs) may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species.

Threatened species recovery planning

Of the 39 threatened species known to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area, formal recovery plans were in place for only three species (see Table 4); two plans were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another seven species and exhibited for one other species. Seventeen species were covered by three national action plans, at least two of which were completed prior to the current reporting period (Table 4).

An array of actions has been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring or predicted to occur in Upper Lachlan Council Area. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for the Yass Daisy and Tarengo Leek Orchid and some threatened animal species with no recovery plans (DEC 2004), these actions did not necessarily occur within the council area. The extent to which recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

Other activities

A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Lachlan, Murrumbidgee and Hawkesbury Nepean catchments (DIPNR 2004) may have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in the council area.

The Grassy Box Woodland Conservation Management Network initiated and commenced implemented of a Biodiversity Conservation in the NSW Sheep/Wheat Belt project during the reporting period. The project includes gathering information to assist in assessing the status and extent of endangered ecological communities and threatened bird species across the NSW sheep/wheat belt, of which Upper Lachlan Council Area is a part. On-ground surveys, which commenced just after the end of the current reporting period, are expected to be continued for several years, with each year's survey results being provided to local and regional planning authorities. Upper Lachlan Council will benefit if future survey sites are located within its boundary.

The council area supports 25 Landcare groups. The Landcare NSW website has information on the range of activities occurring in the council area and the:

About the data

Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

Selection of species records

Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the shire.

Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

Differences between reporting periods

Where possible, any exotic species included in the 2000 lists, and species which were duplicated in the lists from 2000 State of the Environment Report, were eliminated and not counted in the total number of species for this report (2004 State of the Environment Report). Species records for 2000 and 2004 which did not include a full scientific name (i.e. genus and species) were also eliminated from both lists. These three factors mean there will be discrepancies between species counts for 2000 as reported here and in the 2000 State of the Environment Report itself.

The Upper Lachlan Council Area comprises all the former Crookwell Shire, the northern part of the former Mulwaree Shire and most of the former Gunning Shire. The species counts for 2000 quoted in this report were calculated using data only from the former Crookwell Shire. It was not possible for this report to determine which species listed in the 2000 report for the Mulwaree and Gunning shires were located within those parts of the shires now encompassed by the new council area boundary. Direct comparison of species counts between the two reporting periods for the current council area is thus not possible. However increases in the number of plant and animal species reported in 2004 compared with the 2000 data in Table 4 may partly reflect the enlarged size of the council area.

Species counts in the 2000 State of the Environment Report may include historic records, assuming the 2000 data were sourced from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife (see OCE 2000). Historic records (more than 50 years old) were excluded from the current report.

The number of data sources for this State of the Environment report appears to be greater than that used for 2000 State of the Environment Report. The species counts for this report include only records from current sources and do not include an amalgamation with species determined from 2000 State of the Environment Report sources unless the source was one of the following:

Threatened species—national status

Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

Threatened species predicted to occur in the council area

Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

Recovery planning data

DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

References

ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

DEH—see Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

Department of Primary Industries (2005) Fisheries Scientific Committee Final Recommendations, viewed April 2005, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/threatened_species/fsc/recomend.

DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

DPI—see Department of Primary Industries (NSW)

Duncan, A, Baker, GB and Montgomery, N (eds) (1999) The Action Plan for Australian Bats, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

Lachlan Catchment Management Board (2003) Lachlan Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/lachlan_blueprint.pdf.

Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board (2003) Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murrumbidgee_blueprint.pdf.

NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

OCE—see Office of the Commissioner for the Environment

Office of the Commissioner for the Environment (2000) Australian Capital Region State of the Environment Report 2000, Office of the Commissioner for the Environment, Canberra.

Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.