Cooma-Monaro

Native Species

Indicator description

Results for this indicator are also available for  

What the results tell us for Cooma-Monaro

Photograph of Parris' Bush-pea, Pultenaea parrisiae subsp. parrisiae; Credit: John Briggs

Parris' Bush-pea, Pultenaea parrisiae
subsp. parrisiae

The full extent of native animal and plant species diversity in Cooma-Monaro Shire is not known. About 1480 plant species (native and introduced) and 242 animal species have been recorded there, but these records are not comprehensive. Increases in reported species diversity compared with the last reporting period reflect factors such as improved use of data sources and changes in the size of the shire.

Twenty-seven plant and 36 vertebrate animal species that occur in the shire are listed as Vulnerable or Endangered. The number of species in the area newly listed as nationally threatened increased by one since the end of the last reporting period while the number listed as threatened in NSW increased by four. Two species had their status upgraded during the current reporting period—one plant species from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW, and one animal species from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered. One plant species had its status downgraded from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW. An additional 29 threatened plant and animal species are predicted to occur in the shire.

Native plants and animals in the shire are subject to national, state and local laws relating to biodiversity protection. Eight of the 63 threatened species known to occur in the area had formal recovery plans in place; plans for three species were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another nine species and were exhibited for an additional two species. Seventeen animal species were covered by three national action plans. Although various recovery actions had been initiated for many of the threatened species, the extent to which activities were carried out in the shire and had been effective in conserving these species was not known.

Council assessed all development applications during the reporting period, imposing appropriate conditions where necessary, and also ensured the objectives of relevant local environment plans were taken into account.

What native species occur in the shire?

No comprehensive lists of plant or animal species were available for Cooma-Monaro Shire. As past extensive clearing has resulted in significant loss of natural habitat for native plants and animals, species occurring in vegetation remnants within or near the shire provide some indication of the area's former native species diversity. Important areas containing remnant vegetation include national parks, nature reserves, travelling stock reserves, road reserves and cemeteries.

Plants (flora)

List of plant species in Cooma-Monaro Shire

About 1480 plant species, most of them native and including many lichen and other lower plant species, have been recorded in the shire. This is about 1240 plant species more than reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report for the former Cooma-Monaro Shire; the increase most likely reflects different data sources for the current report (see Differences between reporting periods), the slight increase in the size of the new shire and survey effort since June 2000. No information was available on the abundance of native plant species during the current reporting period.

Twenty-seven plant species recorded in the shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 1). The Bredbo Gentian (Gentiana bredboensis) had its status upgraded from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW during the reporting period, while the status of the Leafy Anchor Plant (Discaria nitida) was downgraded from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW.

Scientific experts predict that an additional 10 vulnerable or endangered species may also occur in the shire (see Table 2), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period.

Table 1. Threatened plants known to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Anenome ButtercupRanunculus anemoneusVVNoNational Recovery Plan (2001?); NSW National Recovery Plan (2001)
Araluen GumEucalyptus kartzoffianaVVNoNone
Austral PillwortPilularia novae-hollandiaeENoNone
Austral ToadflaxThesium australeVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Baeuerlen's GentianGentiana baeuerleniiEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Bredbo GentianGentiana bredboensisEEChanged from Vulnerable to Endangered in NSW,
04/07/03
None
Button WrinklewortRutidosis leptorrhynchoidesEENoNone
Creeping Hop-bushDodonaea procumbensVVNoNone
Dillwynia tenuifoliaVVNoNone
Kydra WestringiaWestringia kydrensisEENoNone
Leafy Anchor PlantDiscaria nitidaVChanged from Endangered to Vulnerable in NSW,
03/11/00
None
Lemon ZieriaZieria citriodoraEENoNone
Mauve Burr-daisyCalotis glandulosaVVNoNone
Max Mueller's Burr-daisyCalotis pubescensENoNone
Michelago Parrot-peaDillwynia glauculaENoNone
Monaro Golden DaisyRutidosis leiolepisVVNoNone
Pale PomoderrisPomaderris pallidaVVNoNone
Parris' Bush-peaPultenaea parrisiae subsp. parrisiaeEENoNSW Recovery Plan
Parris' PomaderrisPomaderris parrisiaeVVNoNone
Raleigh SedgeCarex raleighiiENoNSW Recovery Plan (2001)
Rough EyebrightEuphrasia scabraENoNone
Silky Swainson-peaSwainsona sericeaVNoNone
Silver-leafed GumEucalyptus pulverulentaVVNoNone
Small Purple-peaSwainsona rectaEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Small Snake OrchidDiuris pedunculataEENoNone
Small-leaved GumEucalyptus parvulaVVNoNone
Trailing MonotocaMonotoca rotundifoliaENoNone

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Source: ANH 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; NSW Government 2005

Table 2. Threatened plant species predicted to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Common nameScientific name
Bog GrevilleaGrevillea acanthifolia subsp. paludosa
Dense Cord-rushBaloskion longipes
Doubletail ButtercupDiuris aequalis
Kiandra Leek OrchidPrasophyllum morganii
Lacy PomaderrisPomaderris elachophylla
Majors Creek Leek OrchidPrasophyllum sp. Majors Creek
Pale Golden MothsDiuris ochroma
Swamp EverlastingXerochrysum palustre
Tangled BedstrawGalium australe
Tarengo Leek OrchidPrasophyllum petilum

Source: DEC 2005b

Animals (fauna)

List of native animal species in Cooma-Monaro Shire

Two hundred and forty two vertebrate animal species have been recorded in the shire, about 64% of them birds (see Table 3 and the list of fauna). This is 47 species more than reported in the 2000 State of the Environment Report. The increase most likely reflects different data sources for the current report (see Differences between reporting periods), the slight increase in the size of the new shire, and survey effort since June 2000. The number of invertebrate animals (such as insects) is not known. No specific information was available on the abundance of animal species during the current reporting period.

Table 3. Number of vertebrate animal species known to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Animal group (Order)Number of species
2004*
Number of species
2000 Report#
Mammals3825
Amphibians117
Birds154134
Reptiles3729
Fish2-
Total242195

* Number of species in new Cooma-Monaro Shire; # Number of species in former Cooma-Monaro Shire only (see also Differences between reporting periods); Source: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005; OCE 2000

Thirty-six animal species recorded in Cooma-Monaro Shire are listed as endangered or vulnerable (see Table 4). They include 14 mammals, 14 birds, one amphibian, four reptiles and two fish. During the reporting period four species were listed as Vulnerable in NSW and one listed as nationally endangered. One species—Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasyurus maculatus)—was upgraded from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered.

Table 4. Threatened animals known to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Common
name
Scientific
name
Conservation status#Recovery Plan or Action Plan (Date if known)
NationalNSWChange*
Mammals
Broad-toothed RatMastacomys fuscusVNoNone
Eastern Bentwing-batMiniopterus schreibersii oceanensisVNoNone
Eastern False PipistrelleFalsistrellus tasmaniensisVNoNone
Eastern Pygmy-possumCercartetus nanusVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 08/06/01None
Golden-tipped BatKerivoula papuensisVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Greater Broad-nosed BatScoteanax rueppelliiVNoAction Plan (1999)3
KoalaPhascolarctos cinereusVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (21/03/03)
Large-footed MyotisMyotis adversusVNoAction Plan (1999)3
Smoky MousePseudomys fumeusEENoNational RP (2003-2007) in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Southern Brown Bandicoot (eastern)Isoodon obesulus obesulusEEListed as nationally Endangered, 04/04/01National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Spotted-tailed QuollDasyurus maculatusEVChanged from nationally Vulnerable to nationally Endangered,
14/05/04
National Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04); Action Plan (1996)2
Squirrel GliderPetaurus norfolcensisVNoAction Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied GliderPetaurus australisVNoRecovery Plan (gazetted 07/03/03);
Action Plan (1996)2
Yellow-bellied Sheathtail-batSaccolaimus flaviventrisVNoNone
Birds
Barking OwlNinox connivensVNoRecovery Plan exhibited (10/03/03); Action Plan (2000)1
Blue-billed DuckOxyura australisVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies)Climacteris picumnus victoriaeVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Diamond FiretailStagonopleura guttataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Glossy Black-cockatooCalyptorhynchus lathamiVNoNone
Hooded Robin (south-eastern form)Melanodryas cucullata cucullataVListed as Vulnerable in NSW, 26/10/01Action Plan (2000)1
Olive WhistlerPachycephala olivaceaVNoNone
Pink RobinPetroica rodinogasterVNoNone
Powerful OwlNinox strenuaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Regent HoneyeaterXanthomyza phrygiaEENoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003;
Action Plan (2000)1
Sooty OwlTyto tenebricosaVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Speckled WarblerPyrrholaemus sagittatusVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Square-tailed KiteLophoictinia isuraVNoAction Plan (2000)1
Superb ParrotPolytelis swainsoniiVVNoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04);
Action Plan (2000)1
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell FrogLitoria aureaVENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Reptiles
Grassland Earless DragonTympanocryptis pinguicollaEENoNational Recovery Plan 2000–2004 (April 2000)
Little Whip SnakeSuta flagellumVNoNone
Rosenberg's GoannaVaranus rosenbergiVNoNone
Striped Legless-lizardDelma imparVVNoNational Recovery Plan 1999–2003
Fish
Macquarie PerchMacquaria australasicaEENoNational Recovery Plan in preparation (as at 28/02/04)
Trout CodMaccullochella macquariensisEENoRecovery Plan 1998–2005

# Status (threat category): E = Endangered; V = Vulnerable
† National status under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; ‡ NSW status under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; * Change in status since the end of the last reporting period (see also Threatened species—national status)
Sources: 1 = Garnett & Crowley 2000; 2 = Maxwell et al. 1996; 3 = Duncan et al. 1999; Other sources: Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; DEC 2005b; DEH 2005; DPI 2005; Graham 2005; NSW Government 2005

Scientific experts predict that an additional 18 vulnerable or endangered animal species may occur in the shire (see Table 5), although there were no confirmed records of them at the end of the reporting period. One Critically Endangered species—Golden Sun Moth (Synemon plana)—is also predicted to occur in the area.

Table 5. Threatened animals predicted to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Common nameScientific name
Alpine Tree FrogLitoria verreauxii alpina
Australasian BitternBotaurus poiciloptilus
Booroolong FrogLitoria booroolongensis
Brush-tailed PhascogalePhascogale tapoatafa
Freckled DuckStictonetta naevosa
Giant Burrowing FrogHeleioporus australiacus
Golden Sun MothSynemon plana
Littlejohn's Tree FrogLitoria littlejohni
Long-nosed PotorooPotorous tridactylus
Masked OwlTyto novaehollandiae
Northern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne pengilleyi
Painted HoneyeaterGrantiella picta
Pink-tailed Worm-lizardAprasia parapulchella
Southern Bell FrogLitoria raniformis
Southern Corroboree FrogPseudophryne corroboree
Swift ParrotLathamus discolor
Turquoise ParrotNeophema pulchella
White-footed DunnartSminthopsis leucopus
Yellow-spotted Bell FrogLitoria castanea

Source: DEC 2005b

In the broader South Eastern Highlands bioregion within which Cooma-Monaro Shire is located, some bird species that are not listed as threatened are reported to have decreased in abundance over the last 20 years, although others are reported to have increased (Barrett et al. 2003). A selection of these species that occur in the shire is listed in Table 6.

Table 6. Native birds reported to be declining or increasing in the South Eastern Highlands bioregion and known to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire*
Common NameScientific NameDecliningIncreasing
Australian Raven Corvus coronoides+
Black SwanCygnus atratus+
Brown Falcon Falco berigora+
Buff-rumped ThornbillAcanthiza reguloides+
Crested Shrike-tit Falcunculus frontatus+
Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans+
Dusky Woodswallow Artamus cyanopterus+
Eastern Yellow RobinEopsaltria australis+
Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae+
Grey FantailRhipidura albiscapa+
HardheadAythya australis+
Jacky Winter Microeca fascinans+
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles+
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides+
Nankeen Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus+
Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus+
SilvereyeZosterops lateralis+
Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus+
Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus+
Wedge-tailed EagleAquila audax+
Weebill Smicrornis brevirostris+
Western Gerygone Gerygone fusca+
White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae+
White-throated Needletail Hirundapus caudacutus+
White-throated TreecreeperCormobates leucophaeus+

* For a complete list of declining or increasing species in the bioregion, see Barrett et al.(2003) pages 757–788.; Source: Barrett et al. 2003; Birds Australia 2005; CSIRO 2005; NSW Government 2005

Threats and impacts on native species

Habitat disturbance and fragmentation are major threats to the distribution and abundance of native plant and animal species within the shire; with changes in landcover and landuse significant factors. There is little documented information however on the specific impacts of habitat disturbance, fragmentation or other threatening factors on species.

Although native plants and animals in the shire would have been subject to prolonged drought conditions during the current reporting period, actual drought impacts on species are generally not known and poorly understood. Such a natural event may however affect the abundance of species by causing localised deaths (plants and animals) or migration out of the area (animals).

Threatening processes affecting plants

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to plant species in Cooma-Monaro Shire. They include:

The main known threats to some of the endangered/vulnerable plants occurring in the shire are outlined in Table 7. For information on known threats for other threatened plants in the area, including species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 7. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable plants in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Species Threats
Anenome Buttercup
  • horse and rabbit grazing if these feral animals become more prevalent
  • ski slope developments
Austral Toadflax
  • habitat loss and degradation through residential, infrastructure and agricultural developments, intensification of grazing regimes, weed invasion, road works (particularly widening or re-routing)
Rough Eyebright
  • habitat degradation from pig and deer damage, illegal stock grazing, off-road vehicular disturbance, changes to swamp hydrology and vegetation
  • competition from the vigorous native Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and blackberries
Silky Swainson-pea
  • habitat loss and degradation through residential and agricultural developments, intensification of grazing regimes, weed invasion, road works (particularly widening or re-routing)

Source: DEC 2005b

Threatening processes affecting animals

Several key processes listed as threatening in Schedule 3 of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 are relevant to animal species in Cooma-Monaro Shire. They include:

Eight key threats identified for native fish within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDBMC 2003) may also be relevant to fish species within the shire. These threats are low regulation, habitat degradation, lowered water quality, barriers, alien species, exploitation, diseases, and translocation and stocking.

Specific threats identified for many of the endangered/vulnerable animals occurring in the shire are shown in Table 8. The threats include a range of factors that affect species habitat, food sources or population viability. Habitat clearance and fragmentation threaten many of the species. For information on known threats for individual threatened animal species in the area, and for other threatened species predicted to occur there, see http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Table 8. Selection of known threats to some listed Endangered and Vulnerable animals in Cooma-Monaro Shire
Species Threats
Mammals*
Broad-toothed Rat; Eastern False Pipistrelle; Yellow-bellied Glider
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation from roads, ski runs and buildings, grazing by stock, rabbits and hares, weed invasion, global warming
  • predation by (e.g. by Red Fox, cats)
  • deaths from catastrophic fire events, hazard reduction
  • disturbance to winter roosting and breeding sites
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and/or degradation, including from loss of trees for foraging and hollow-bearing trees for roosting, application of pesticides in or adjacent to foraging areas
Birds*
Barking Owl (southern form); Blue-billed Duck; Brown Treecreeper (eastern subspecies); Glossy Black-cockatoo; Hooded Robin (southern form); Masked Owl; Olive Whistler; Powerful Owl; Regent Honeyeater; Speckled Warbler; Superb Parrot
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation from native vegetation clearance, residential development, overgrazing by stock and rabbits, tree loss through altered water tables, loss in availability of nest trees, reduction of river flows
  • fox and cat predation
  • <
  • poisoning, disturbance and predation by foxes on fledglings
  • competition with Starlings for nest sites
  • reduction in suitably-sized prey
  • road mortality
Amphibians
Green and Golden Bell Frog
  • habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation from infilling and destruction of wetlands, alteration of drainage patterns, stormwater runoff, use of herbicides and other weed-control measures
  • fungal pathogen—Chytrid Fungus
  • predation by feral animals such as foxes and by exotic fish such as Plague Minnow
  • road mortality, where populations are already small due to other threats
Reptiles*
Grassland Earless Dragon; Little Whip Snake; Rosenberg's Goanna; Striped Legless Lizard
  • habitat loss, fragmentation or degradation from land clearance, residential, agricultural, rural lifestyle subdivision and industrial developments, collection of bush rock, removal of rocks and fallen timber for pasture management, slashing, ploughing, heavy grazing and trampling by stock and rabbits, invasion by weeds or escaped pasture species, inappropriate tree planting, addition of fertilisers, application of agricultural chemicals, changed hydrology
  • changed fire regimes that result in changes to vegetation structure and composition and invertebrate food sources
  • predation by feral animals, domestic cats and dogs
  • mortality from moving vehicles

* Each threat listed does not necessarily apply to every species; Source: DEC 2005b

What is being done to conserve native species?

Laws and policy

National and state laws provide a framework for the protection of native plant and animal species within the shire. Two state laws were enacted during the reporting period: the Native Vegetation Act 2003 and the Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003. These two laws and the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 provide a landscape scale framework for biodiversity management. The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974, other state laws including the Fisheries Management Act 1994 and Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and the national Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 provide the framework for the recognition and protection of threatened plant and animal species, and usually require the species to be taken into account during proposed developments. More information on these laws is provided in Government laws and policies.

Cooma-Monaro Shire is located within the Murrumbidgee and Southern Rivers Catchment Management Authority (CMA) areas. Each CMA is required to work in partnership with Local Government as well as other stakeholders. The Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint (Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board 2003) and South East Catchment Blueprint (South East Catchment Management Board 2002), both completed during the reporting period, include a range of management actions to restore, maintain or conserve biodiversity values. Local government is represented on these authorities' membership.

Local government regulations, legislation or planning documents such as local environment plans (LEPs) may also provide some protection for native species, or limit or prohibit certain activities that may lead to the further decline of protected species. Council assessed all development applications in accordance with the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (which requires consideration of threatened species) and imposed appropriate conditions where necessary. Council also ensured the objectives of relevant LEPs were considered. The Cooma-Monaro LEP (Urban) and Cooma-Monaro LEP (Rural) were applied throughout the reporting period, while the Yarrowlumla LEP was also applied when parts of the former Yarrowlumla Shire were amalgamated with Cooma-Monaro Shire to form the current shire.

Threatened species recovery planning

Of the 63 threatened species known to occur in Cooma-Monaro Shire, only eight species had formal recovery plans in place (see tables 1 and 4); plans for three species were completed during the current reporting period. During the same period, plans were being prepared for another nine species and were exhibited for an additional two species. Seventeen animal species were covered by three national action plans, at least two of which were completed prior to the current reporting period.

An array of actions has been detailed by various conservation management agencies for many of the threatened species occurring in Cooma-Monaro Shire. Although recovery actions had been initiated during the reporting period by researchers and the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation for some of threatened species with no recovery plans (DEC 2004), these actions did not necessarily occur within the shire. The extent to which recovery actions are proving effective in conserving targeted threatened species is not clear.

Other activities

A range of nationally funded activities undertaken during the reporting period in the Murrumbidgee and Southern Rivers catchments (DIPNR 2004) may have enhanced the conservation of plant and animal species in the shire. Work carried out through the Monaro Grasslands Conservation Management Network (see Ecological communities) may also have benefited the conservation of plant and animal species associated with native grasslands located in the shire.

The Cooma-Monaro Shire supports nine Landcare groups. See the Landcare websites for more information about activities in the shire and in:

About the data

Data for species lists were obtained from the sources listed below.

Selection of species records

Species records were selected from between July 1955 to June 2004. This date range was used to eliminate species which had not been recorded in the last 50 years, and to eliminate historic records with poor locational or taxonomic detail.

Where possible, an attempt was made to exclude exotic species from all species lists. However, due to extensive data and time constraints, some exotic plant species may be included in the list of native plant species and hence also included in the plant species total for the council area.

Some species, especially plants, may appear more than once in the species lists of native plants and animals where slight variations in spelling or formatting of scientific names have occurred between or within the datasets used to compile these lists.

The total number of plant and animal species referred to in this report equals the total number of taxa listed in the lists of native plant and animal species (i.e. the total 'species' count includes varieties, subspecies, forms and hybrids).

Differences between reporting periods

Where possible, any exotic species included in the 2000 lists, and species which were duplicated in the lists from 2000 State of the Environment Report, were eliminated and not counted in the total number of species for this report (State of the Environment 2004). Species records for 2000 and 2004 which did not include a full scientific name (i.e. genus and species) were also eliminated from both lists. These three factors mean there will be discrepancies between 2000 species counts mentioned in this report and species counts mentioned in 2000 State of the Environment Report.

The species counts for 2000 quoted in this report were calculated using data only from the former Cooma-Monaro Shire. They did not include species from the former Yarrowlumla Shire, parts of which are now encompassed by the new Cooma-Monaro Shire. Comparisons of species counts between the two reporting periods are thus difficult because of the changed shire size. However, this change may partly contribute to the increase in numbers of plants and animals reported in 2004 compared with the 2000 data.

Species counts in the 2000 State of the Environment Report may include historic records, assuming the 2000 data were sourced from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife (see OCE 2000). Historic records (more than 50 years old) were excluded from the current report.

The number of data sources this 2004 report appears to be greater than that used for 2000 State of the Environment Report. The species counts for 2004 include only records from current sources and do not include an amalgamation with species determined from State of the Environment 2000 sources unless the source was one of the following:

Threatened species—national status

Plant and animal species listed under the Commonwealth Government's Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 were automatically transferred to the new Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) and were formally listed under the EPBC Act on 16 July 2000. Although this listing date falls within the current reporting period, the status of such species was considered to remain unchanged from the previous reporting period.

Threatened species predicted to occur in the shire

Data were provided from DEC, Threatened Species Unit, Southern Directorate as an extract from its Property Vegetation Planning Database. The information contained in this database is available on the internet (DEC 2005b), however the website is still being developed. The underlying data is being refined, additional utilities will be added and a number of known bugs resolved before the site is officially launched.

Recovery planning data

DEC provided the results of a search of the NSW Recovery Planning Database (DEC 2004). The results showed recovery actions undertaken for all threatened species within NSW for the current reporting period. The search was carried out on 15 December 2004.

References

ANH—see Australian National Herbarium

Australian National Herbarium (2005) Australia's Virtual Herbarium database, Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO and Australian National Botanic Gardens, Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra.

Barrett, G, Silcocks, A, Barry, S, Cunningham, R and Poulter, R (2003) The New Atlas of Australian Birds, Royal Australasian Ornithologist's Union, Melbourne.

Birds Australia (2005) Atlas of Australian Birds database, Birds Australia, Melbourne.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2005) Australian National Wildlife Collection Database, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.

CSIRO—see Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

DEC—see Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW)

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2004) Recovery Planning Database, Threatened Species Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005a) Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database, Department of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville.

Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW) (2005b) Threatened Species, Populations and Ecological Communities of NSW Catchments, viewed 12 April 2005, http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.

Department of Environment and Heritage (Commonwealth) (2005) Species Profile and Threats Database, viewed December 2005, http://www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl.

Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources (NSW) (2004) 2003/04 Combined NSW Catchment Management Authorities Annual Report, Volume 1: CMA Activities and Achievements, Department of Infrastructure Planning and Natural Resources, Sydney.

Department of Primary Industries (2005) Fisheries Scientific Committee Final Recommendations, viewed April 2005, http://www.fisheries.nsw.gov.au/threatened_species/fsc/recomend.

DIPNR—see Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources (NSW)

DPI—see Department of Primary Industries (NSW)

Duncan, A, Baker, GB and Montgomery, N (eds) (1999) The Action Plan for Australian Bats, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Garnett, ST and Crowley, GM (2000) The Action Plan for Australian Birds, Environment Australia, Canberra.

Graham, C (2005) Charles Sturt University, personal communication.

Maxwell, S, Burbidge, AA and Morris, K (eds) (1996) The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes, Environment Australia, Canberra.

MDBMC—see Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council

Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (2003) Native Fish Strategy for the Murray-Darling Basin 2003–2013, Murray Darling Basin Commission, Canberra.

Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Board (2003) Murrumbidgee Catchment Blueprint, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/murrumbidgee_blueprint.pdf.

NSW Government (2005) BioNet System, NSW Government, viewed 11 April 2005, http://www.bionet.nsw.gov.au/BioNet.cfm?is_ie5up.

OCE—see Office of the Commissioner for the Environment

Office of the Commissioner for the Environment (2000) Australian Capital Region State of the Environment Report 2000, Office of the Commissioner for the Environment, Canberra.

Royal Botanic Gardens (2005) Herbarium Collection Database, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney.

South East Catchment Management Board (2002) South East Catchment Blueprint – An Integrated Catchment Management Plan for the South East Catchment 2002, NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney, online at http://www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au/care/cmb/blueprints/pdf/south_east_blueprint.pdf.